- conditioning – water is introduced to the leather to a level of 18-28%.
- softening – bodily softening of the leather-based by using setting apart the leather fibres.
- buffing – abrasion of the surfaces of the leather-based to lessen nap or grain defects.
For a few leathers a floor coating is implemented. Tanners consult with this as finishing. Finishing operations may also consist of:
- curler coating
- curtain coating
- combing (hair-on)
In addition to the alternative environmental influences of leather-based, the manufacturing approaches have a excessive environmental effect, maximum appreciably due to:
- the heavy use of polluting chemical compounds in the tanning technique
- air pollution because of the transformation method (hydrogen sulfide for the duration of dehairing and ammonia during deliming, solvent vapours).